Browsing Category

Biotech Glossary


The organelle within a living cell that contains genetic material and controls life functions.


The name given to an individual unit of the DNA double helix and RNA. A nucleotide contains one sugar, one phosphate and one nitrogenous base.

Monoclonal Antibody

An antibody produced by cells that are all derived from a single antibody-producing cell. Once a cell capable of generating an antibody with desired therapeutic characteristics is selected, laboratory processes are used to clone (make large numbers of) these cells. Since the cells are all identical and are produced by…

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

A polynucleotide copy of a DNA gene that communicates the code for building a protein to ribosomes so that new proteins can be built.

Genetic Engineering

Alteration of the genetic material of cells or organisms in order, for example, to make them capable of making new substances or performing new functions.


A length of DNA that codes for a particular protein or, in certain cases, a functional or structural RNA molecule.

Gel Electrophoresis

A technique used for the separation of DNA, RNA or protein molecules by using an electric current applied to a gel matrix. The gel is the medium used to contain, then separate the target molecules. Electrophoresis refers to the use of electricity to move the molecules through the gel matrix. Placing the molecules in…

DNA Sequencing

Technologies through which the order of base pairs in a DNA molecule can be determined.